Getting Started with Ansible 12 – Managing Services

Ansible is an incredible configuration management and provisioning utility that enables you to automate all the things. In this series, you’ll learn everything you need to know in order to use Ansible for your day-to-day administration duties.

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site.yml (text in bold has been added since the previous version)

 ---
 
 - hosts: all
   become: true
   pre_tasks:
 
   - name: install updates (CentOS)
     tags: always
     dnf:
       update_only: yes
       update_cache: yes
     when: ansible_distribution == "CentOS"
 
   - name: install updates (Ubuntu)
     tags: always
     apt:
       upgrade: dist
       update_cache: yes
     when: ansible_distribution == "Ubuntu"
 
 - hosts: workstations
   become: true
   tasks:
 
   - name: install unzip
     package:
       name: unzip
 
   - name: install terraform
     unarchive:
       src: https://releases.hashicorp.com/terraform/0.12.28/terraform_0.12.28_linux_amd64.zip
       dest: /usr/local/bin
       remote_src: yes
       mode: 0755
       owner: root
       group: root
 
 - hosts: web_servers
   become: true
   tasks:
 
   - name: install httpd package (CentOS)
     tags: apache,centos,httpd
     dnf:
       name:
         - httpd
         - php
       state: latest
     when: ansible_distribution == "CentOS"
 
   - name: start and enable httpd (CentOS)
     tags: apache,centos,httpd
     service:
       name: httpd
       state: started
     when: ansible_distribution == "CentOS"
 
   - name: install apache2 package (Ubuntu)
     tags: apache,apache2,ubuntu
     apt:
       name:
         - apache2
         - libapache2-mod-php
       state: latest
     when: ansible_distribution == "Ubuntu"
 
   - name: copy html file for site
     tags: apache,apache,apache2,httpd
     copy:
       src: default_site.html
       dest: /var/www/html/index.html
       owner: root
       group: root
       mode: 0644
 
 - hosts: db_servers
   become: true
   tasks:
 
   - name: install mariadb server package (CentOS)
     tags: centos,db,mariadb
     dnf:
       name: mariadb
       state: latest
     when: ansible_distribution == "CentOS"
 
   - name: install mariadb server
     tags: db,mariadb,ubuntu
     apt:
       name: mariadb-server
       state: latest
     when: ansible_distribution == "Ubuntu"
 
 - hosts: file_servers
   tags: samba
   become: true
   tasks:
 
   - name: install samba package
     tags: samba
     package:
       name: samba
       state: latest

site.yml (second version, the change is in bold)

 ---
 
 - hosts: all
   become: true
   pre_tasks:
 
   - name: install updates (CentOS)
     tags: always
     dnf:
       update_only: yes
       update_cache: yes
     when: ansible_distribution == "CentOS"
 
   - name: install updates (Ubuntu)
     tags: always
     apt:
       upgrade: dist
       update_cache: yes
     when: ansible_distribution == "Ubuntu"
 
 - hosts: workstations
   become: true
   tasks:
 
   - name: install unzip
     package:
       name: unzip
 
   - name: install terraform
     unarchive:
       src: https://releases.hashicorp.com/terraform/0.12.28/terraform_0.12.28_linux_amd64.zip
       dest: /usr/local/bin
       remote_src: yes
       mode: 0755
       owner: root
       group: root
 
 - hosts: web_servers
   become: true
   tasks:
 
   - name: install httpd package (CentOS)
     tags: apache,centos,httpd
     dnf:
       name:
         - httpd
         - php
       state: latest
     when: ansible_distribution == "CentOS"
 
   - name: start and enable httpd (CentOS)
     tags: apache,centos,httpd
     service:
       name: httpd
       state: started
       enabled: yes
     when: ansible_distribution == "CentOS"
 
   - name: install apache2 package (Ubuntu)
     tags: apache,apache2,ubuntu
     apt:
       name:
         - apache2
         - libapache2-mod-php
       state: latest
     when: ansible_distribution == "Ubuntu"
 
   - name: copy html file for site
     tags: apache,apache,apache2,httpd
     copy:
       src: default_site.html
       dest: /var/www/html/index.html
       owner: root
       group: root
       mode: 0644
 
 - hosts: db_servers
   become: true
   tasks:
 
   - name: install mariadb server package (CentOS)
     tags: centos,db,mariadb
     dnf:
       name: mariadb
       state: latest
     when: ansible_distribution == "CentOS"
 
   - name: install mariadb server
     tags: db,mariadb,ubuntu
     apt:
       name: mariadb-server
       state: latest
     when: ansible_distribution == "Ubuntu"
 
 - hosts: file_servers
   tags: samba
   become: true
   tasks:
 
   - name: install samba package
     tags: samba
     package:
       name: samba
       state: latest

site.yml (added ‘lineinfile’ play)

 ---
 
 - hosts: all
   become: true
   pre_tasks:
 
   - name: install updates (CentOS)
     tags: always
     dnf:
       update_only: yes
       update_cache: yes
     when: ansible_distribution == "CentOS"
 
   - name: install updates (Ubuntu)
     tags: always
     apt:
       upgrade: dist
       update_cache: yes
     when: ansible_distribution == "Ubuntu"
 
 - hosts: workstations
   become: true
   tasks:
 
   - name: install unzip
     package:
       name: unzip
 
   - name: install terraform
     unarchive:
       src: https://releases.hashicorp.com/terraform/0.12.28/terraform_0.12.28_linux_amd64.zip
       dest: /usr/local/bin
       remote_src: yes
       mode: 0755
       owner: root
       group: root
 
 - hosts: web_servers
   become: true
   tasks:
 
   - name: install httpd package (CentOS)
     tags: apache,centos,httpd
     dnf:
       name:
         - httpd
         - php
       state: latest
     when: ansible_distribution == "CentOS"
 
   - name: start and enable httpd (CentOS)
     tags: apache,centos,httpd
     service:
       name: httpd
       state: started
       enabled: yes
     when: ansible_distribution == "CentOS"
 
   - name: install apache2 package (Ubuntu)
     tags: apache,apache2,ubuntu
     apt:
       name:
         - apache2
         - libapache2-mod-php
       state: latest
     when: ansible_distribution == "Ubuntu"
 
   - name: change e-mail address for admin
     tags: apache,centos,httpd
     lineinfile:
       path: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
       regexp: '^ServerAdmin'
       line: ServerAdmin somebody@somewhere.net
     when: ansible_distribution == "CentOS"
     register: httpd
 
   - name: restart httpd (CentOS)
     tags: apache,centos,httpd
     service:
       name: httpd
       state: restarted
     when: httpd.changed 
 
   - name: copy html file for site
     tags: apache,apache,apache2,httpd
     copy:
       src: default_site.html
       dest: /var/www/html/index.html
       owner: root
       group: root
       mode: 0644
 
 - hosts: db_servers
   become: true
   tasks:
 
   - name: install mariadb server package (CentOS)
     tags: centos,db,mariadb
     dnf:
       name: mariadb
       state: latest
     when: ansible_distribution == "CentOS"
 
   - name: install mariadb server
     tags: db,mariadb,ubuntu
     apt:
       name: mariadb-server
       state: latest
     when: ansible_distribution == "Ubuntu"
 
 - hosts: file_servers
   tags: samba
   become: true
   tasks:
 
   - name: install samba package
     tags: samba
     package:
       name: samba
       state: latest

Notable Replies

  1. Hi, I posted in the topic for the next episode as well as I’m just going through this series. I have a question in case someone knows how to handle this, it’s regarding managing ufw to setup some rules to allow ports for ssh, http and https.

    It seems there’s a community module for ufw but I’m not really sure how to install it and whether or not is good practice to use additional modules when writing playbooks that are meant to be shared with others. This is not really the case for me, but I’d like to be able to run this playbook from different machines and installing modules might make things more difficult. Any thoughts on this?

    As for creating the rules I saw there’s a built-in iptables module that I could use instead. Unfortunately I’m not very well versed on iptables. I was hoping someone here could help with this as well. I thought I could manually setup ufw and then use the rules it generated but I’m not sure if this would be a good idea?

    Thanks!

    EDIT 2:

    I managed to solve this one using the iptables module. Turns out for a simple configuration update this was very easy to do after reading through the documentation. This is what I’m trying to emulate:

    $ sudo ufw default deny incoming
    $ sudo ufw default allow outgoing
    $ sudo ufw allow ssh
    $ sudo ufw allow http
    $ sudo ufw allow https
    

    And I manage to do this with the following tasks. Note that I’m running Ansible 2.9 so I have to specify the destination ports individually, but latest version supports passing in a list of ports. Also, the order is very important in this case because the tasks are run in order so the last one is where I overwrite the policy to drop incoming connections.

    - name: Allow connections to SSH
      ansible.builtin.iptables:
        chain: INPUT
        protocol: tcp
        destination_port: "22"
        jump: ACCEPT
    
    - name: Allow connections to HTTP
      ansible.builtin.iptables:
        chain: INPUT
        protocol: tcp
        destination_port: "80"
        jump: ACCEPT
    
    - name: Allow connections to HTTPS
      ansible.builtin.iptables:
        chain: INPUT
        protocol: tcp
        destination_port: "443"
        jump: ACCEPT
    
    - name: Set default outgoing policy
      iptables:
        chain: OUTPUT
        policy: ACCEPT
    
    - name: Set default incoming policy
      iptables:
        chain: INPUT
        policy: DROP
    

    I’m still curious however about using community modules if anyone can share their experience with using them. Either way hope this helps and please let me know if you see anything to improve with it.

    Thank you!

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